Part 2: Paragraph Structure
Understanding typical paragraphs structure is crucial to effective passage comprehension.
First, watch this video to learn more about typical organizational structures of paragraphs.
Now, apply the newly learn concepts to solve reading-related tasks.
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Task 3 (EXTRA Challenge): Read the topic sentences of the same paragraphs & predict the logical development of a paragraph based on the logic of the topic sentence. Match each paragraph with expected logical development.
- Read over the topic sentences. Identify the logical link.
- Predict the logical development & quickly scan the paragraph to confirm the details.
- Match each Paragraph with one of the logical developments in the answer choices.
Main body paragraphs
Continuous urbanization and industrialization have made light pollution a problem of a global scale. Overlighting comes from a growing number of building exterior and interior lights, advertisement billboards, street lights, sporting venues and industrial facilities. According to the satellite data, Earth’s artificially lit outdoor surface at night grew by 2 percent annually in brightness and area from 2012 to 2016. The rate of growth observed in the developing world was much faster than in developed countries. As a result, according to 2016 World Atlas of the Artificial Night Sky Brightness, nearly 80 percent of the global population already lives under skyglow and never experiences a natural night. The rate of growth of light pollution is only expected to increase.
Scientists have linked artificial light at night (ALAN) to a wide range of human health problems. Exposure to artificial bright light during the nighttime suppresses melatonin secretion, a hormone that regulates the sleep-wake cycle. Moreover, exposure to shorter wavelengths of light, such as blue light, disturbs melatonin secretion and causes circadian phase shifts, even if the light is not bright. Consequently, it increases the length of time it takes one to accomplish the transition from full wakefulness to sleep. Chronic exposure to ALAN results in inappropriately timed sleep and wake called circadian misalignment. This may have negative effects on the psychological, cardiovascular and metabolic function.
A growing concern about the devastating consequences of light pollution on human health has pushed scientists, environmentalists, homeowners, civic groups, architects and designers to search for ways to restore natural light. Advances in light technology have created lighting solutions that are meant to support human circadian rhythms. For example, some lamp designs now include blue light that aligns circadian cycles during the day and warmer shades at night. Building designers also incorporate greater flexibility in the control of the lighting systems. One such solution is transparent surfaces that allow more natural light during the winter and limit the amount of sun during the summer. Households have been promoted to use blackout curtains to control the amount of light at night.
- Argument (opinion – reasons)
- Description (main idea – examples)